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[117] Kills are cached up to 2km (114mi) apart. [129] [11], The English name 'leopard' comes from Old French: leupart or Middle French: liepart, that derives from Latin: leopardus and Ancient Greek: (leopardos). [73] The leopard-lion clade diverged 3.11.95 million years ago. [133] If you want to read similar articles to Where do Leopards Live? [89], In Sri Lanka, leopards were recorded in Yala National Park and in unprotected forest patches, tea estates, grasslands, home gardens, pine and eucalyptus plantations. [158], In protected areas of several countries, wildlife touring programs and safari ventures offer sightings of leopards in their natural habitat. In the Himalayas, snow leopards live in high alpine areas, mostly above the tree line and up to 18,000 feet in elevation. This partial ossification was previously thought to be essential for allowing the Panthera cats to roar, but new studies show that the ability to roar is due to other morphological features, especially of the larynx, which are absent in the snow leopard. [49] [122] The largest prey killed by a leopard was reportedly a male eland weighing 900kg (2,000lb). In areas such as Sri Lanka, reserves in Central Asia and the Middle East and most of the montane and tropical rainforests of Africa, the leopard is the remaining top terrestrial predator present and often take varied prey of various sizes, including at times large ungulates weighing hundreds of kilograms, although they also takes smaller prey such as monkeys where ungulates are scarce. More than 100 prey species were recorded. Weerasinghe, U.M.I.R.K., Kariyawasm, D. and M. De Zoysa (2003). It is known to adapt to almost any habitat that provides it with sufficient food and cover. [162] Man-eating leopards are considered bold and difficult to track and may enter human settlements for prey, more so than lions and tigers. The fur tends to be grayish in colder climates, and dark golden in rain forest habitats. [106], In Kruger National Park, most leopards tend to keep 1km (12mi) apart. [35], The maximum weight of a wild leopard is about 96kg (212lb), recorded in Southern Africa. It is also threatened by trophy hunting and poaching. [27], The whitish spots on the back of its ears are thought to play a role in communication. They live in sub-Saharan Africa, northeast Africa, Central Asia, India, and China. The generic name Panthera was first used by Lorenz Oken in 1816, who included all the known spotted cats into this group. In one myth, the god was captured by pirates but two leopards appear and rescue him. Leopards showcase sexual dimorphism as male leopards are larger than female leopards. Leopards are large animals, however they are the smallest of the big cats category. Prey species in this weight range tend to occur in dense habitat and to form small herds. Most leopards are light coloured and have dark spots on their fur. Leopards are present in the wild in over 70 countries in Africa, Eurasia, and the Indian subcontinent. Leopards have been known to humans throughout history, and have featured in the art, mythology, and folklore of many countries where they have historically occurred. [24][25], Its fur tends to grow longer in colder climates. Snow leopard, also called ounce, large long-haired Asian cat, classified as either Panthera uncia or Uncia uncia in the family Felidae. In other words, it belongs to the family of cats. It has since been hypothesized that it became extinct on the island following the Toba eruption about 75,000 years ago,[75] and due to competition with other predators, such as the Sunda clouded leopard (Neofelis diardi) and the dhole (Cuon alpinus). It is not clear if male territories overlap as much as those of females do. [11], In Europe, the leopard occurred at least since the Pleistocene. Leopards are the member of the Felidae and very much similar in appearance to the jaguar, And the melanistic are known as black panther. There are four types of Wild Leopards found in India, named as Indian Leopard, Snow Leopard, Clouded Leopard and Black Leopard. [107][108] Aggressive encounters are rare, typically limited to defending territories from intruders. Image: Pirie et al./Ingwe Leopard [26][125], In parts of its global range, the leopard is sympatric with other large predators such as tiger, lion, cheetah, spotted hyena, striped hyena, brown hyena, African wild dog, dhole and up to five bear species. The Ancient Romanskept leopards in captivity to be slaughtered in hunts as well as be used in executio The leopard is a sister taxon to a clade within Panthera, consisting of the lion and the jaguar. [32] Males interact with their partners and cubs at times, and exceptionally this can extend beyond to two generations. [22] Leopards living in arid regions are pale cream, yellowish to ochraceous and rufous in colour; those living in forests and mountains are much darker and deep golden. [3] In Chitwan National Park, leopards killed prey ranging from less than 25100kg (55220lb) in weight with most kills in the 2550kg (55110lb) range. In western and central Asia, it avoids deserts, areas with long snow cover and proximity to urban centres. The Amur leopard is one of nine subspecies (types) of leopard. In areas where leopard and tiger are sympatric, coexistence is reportedly not the general rule, with leopards being few where tigers are numerous. For leopard sightings, head to the fringes of the Okavango Delta , whose waterways attract thirsty animals searching for water. [119] Analysis of leopard scat in Ta National Park revealed that primates, except for chimpanzee and potto, are primary leopard prey during the day. In 1913, an Algerian newspaper reported a leopard killed that allegedly measured about 275cm (9ft 0in) in total length. [100] However, the leopard is a vulnerable species. [9] In sub-Saharan Africa, it is still numerous and surviving in marginal habitats where other large cats have disappeared. Its belly is whitish and its ringed tail is shorter than its body. [26] The guard hairs protecting the basal hairs are short, 34mm (18532in) in face and head, and increase in length toward the flanks and the belly to about 2530mm (1118in). There, the two species have high dietary overlap, and an increase in the tiger population resulted in a sharp decrease in the leopard population and a shift in the leopard diet to small prey (from 9% to 36%) and domestic prey (from 6.8% to 31.8%). [36][37] An Indian leopard killed in Himachal Pradesh in 2016 measured 261cm (8ft 7in) with an estimated weight of 78.5kg (173lb) was perhaps the largest known wild leopard. [2] Four European Pleistocene leopard subspecies were proposed. Individuals try to drive away intruders of the same sex. This has been verified by the Guinness Book of World Records. Males stand 6070cm (23122712in) at the shoulder, while females are 5764cm (221225in) tall. [135] In areas with high tiger populations, such as in the central parts of India's Kanha National Park, leopards are not permanent residents, but transients. Both were killed by the renowned hunter and conservationist Jim Corbett. Neofelis diverged about 8.66million years ago from the Panthera lineage. Their range extends from sub-Saharan Africa, to patches across the Middle East, throughout tropical Asia West Asia and in parts of Siberia. The Amur leopard is found in temperate forest habitat, which experience a wide range of variability in temperature and precipitation. Leopards have been crossbred with other big cats, Where Do Lemurs Live? Clouded leopards prefer to live in lowland tropical rainforests. [20], The leopard's fur is generally soft and thick, notably softer on the belly than on the back. For example, desert leopards are known to be several shades lighter than grassland ones. Also, a leopard's circular spots or "rosettes" do not have dots in their centers, which is a jaguar's marking. [138][139], Nile crocodiles prey on leopards occasionally. [140] An adult leopard was recovered from the stomach of a 5.5m (18ft 1in) Burmese python. [109], Males occupy territories that often overlap with a few smaller female territories, probably as a strategy to enhance access to females. Most leopards avoid people, but humans may occasionally be targeted as prey. [118], The leopard is a carnivore that prefers medium-sized prey with a body mass ranging from 1040kg (2288lb). They have shorter legs and longer bodies when compared to lions and tigers and jaguars. [52][53], Following Linnaeus' first description, 27 leopard subspecies were proposed by naturalists between 1794 and 1956. [82][83][84] In southeastern Egypt, a leopard killed in 2017 was the first record in this area in 65 years. [26] Territories recorded in Nepal's Bardia National Park, 48km2 (1812sqmi) for males and 57km2 (2212sqmi) for females, are smaller than those generally observed in Africa. [118][126][129][130] In the Kalahari Desert, leopards frequently lose kills to brown hyenas, if the leopard is unable to move the kill into a tree. It is similar in appearance to the jaguar, but has a smaller, lighter physique, and its rosettes are generally smaller, more densely packed and without central spots. Juveniles have woolly fur, and appear to be dark-coloured due to the densely arranged spots. Leopards are a very adaptable species that can live in very different habitats and distribution ranges; they have evolved particular characteristics that help them make the most of their environment. [30], The largest skull recorded for a black panther from India, recorded in 1920, measured 28cm (11in) in basal length, and 20cm (8in) in breadth, and weighed 1,000g (2lb 4oz). They can also be found in the Tibetan Plateau and across a Surveys in the Central African Republic's Chinko area revealed that the leopard population decreased from 97 individuals in 2012 to 50 individuals in 2017. [111] They can be found in Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Bhutan, India, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Mongolia, Nepal, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. [21] Its skin colour varies between individuals from pale yellowish to dark golden with dark spots grouped in rosettes. [115], The leopard depends mainly on its acute senses of hearing and vision for hunting. Surveyed landscapes included elevations below 2,600m (8,500ft) in the Shivalik Hills and Gangetic plains, Central India and Eastern Ghats, Western Ghats, as well as the Brahmaputra River basin and hills in Northeast India. In 1953, a lioness and a male leopard were mated in Hanshin Park in Nishinomiya, Japan. [55] [28] Oken's classification was not widely accepted, and Felis or Leopardus was used as the generic name until the early 20th century. [131][132] Lions occasionally fetch leopard kills from trees. In the mid-20th century, Amur leopards were absent or very rarely encountered in the Primorye region of the Russian Far East at places where Siberian tigers roamed. [123] A study in the southern Kalahari Desert showed that leopards meet their water requirements by the bodily fluids of prey and succulent plants; they drink water every two to three days, and feed infrequently on moisture-rich plants such as gemsbok cucumbers (Acanthosicyos naudinianus), tsamma melon (Citrullus lanatus) and Kalahari sour grass (Schmidtia kalahariensis). Where do leopards live? Consequently, they live in a wide variety of habitats including forests, mountains, deserts and grasslands. Their pelage is also more gray in colour with less defined spots. [141], In Serengeti National Park, troops of 3040 olive baboons were observed while mobbing and attacking a female leopard and her cubs. Melanism in leopards is inherited as a recessive trait relatively to the spotted form. [45], In India, nine pale and white leopards were reported between 1905 and 1967. [19] The word pardus is thought to originate from Ancient Greek: (pardalots) meaning spotted like a leopard. Small numbers of this species can be found as far east as China and Malaysia; the leopard has the largest distribution of all wild cats. The black panther is common foremost in tropical and subtropical moist forests like the equatorial rainforest of the Malay Peninsula and the tropical rainforest on the slopes of some African mountains such as Mount Kenya. The cause of this morph, known as a "strawberry leopard" or "pink panther", is not well understood. They were common near villages at the periphery of the park and outside the park. [40] Interbreeding in melanistic leopards produces a significantly smaller litter size than is produced by normal pairings. At one year of age, leopard young can probably fend for themselves, but remain with the mother for 1824months. [9] [127][128], While interspecies killing of full-grown leopards is generally rare, given the opportunity, both tiger and lion readily kill and consume both young and adult leopards. [92] The Northern Tenasserim Forest Complex in southern Myanmar is considered a leopard stronghold. Most healthy leopards prefer wild prey to humans, but injured, sickly, or struggling cats or those with a shortage of regular prey may resort to hunting humans and become habituated to it. There are 9 recognized leopard subspecies. These data indicate the near-fixation of the dark allele in the region. The estrous cycle lasts about 46days and the female usually is in heat for 67days. [144] Cubs are usually born in a litter of 24 cubs. [79], The leopard has the largest distribution of all wild cats, occurring widely in Africa as well as the Caucasus and Asia, although populations are fragmented and declining. It cannot roar, despite possessing partial ossification of the hyoid bone. Sizes vary geographically. It is considered to be extirpated in North Africa. Researchers in South Africa have found evidence of seven "strawberry" leopards, adding to just a handful of documented cases of these ultra-rare big cats. Snow leopards can be found throughout high mountain ranges, including the Himalayas and the southern Siberian mountains in Russia. [47], Felis pardus was the scientific name proposed by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. The leopard is rarely found in cold environments and exists mostly in the savannas of Africa and the jungles of Southeast Asia. [26] In a South African reserve, a male was wounded in a malemale territorial battle over a carcass. Many leopards are killed each year for their fur and body parts and this is one reason why the leopard is an endangered animal. In a reserved forest of southern India, species preyed upon by leopard, dhole and striped hyena overlapped considerably. When they live in rocky habitats, leopards have smaller ranges. With relatively abundant prey and differences in the size of prey selected, tigers and leopards seem to successfully coexist without competitive exclusion or interspecies dominance hierarchies that may be more common to the leopard's co-existence with the lion in savanna habitats. Leopards have been observed walking 125km (121512mi) across their range at night; they may even wander up to 75km (47mi) if disturbed. Found mainly in the Russian Far East but also in North East China, the good news is that, although driven to the brink of extinction, the Amur leopard has recently seen a slight rise in numbers as a result of the hard work of conservationists worldwide. The roaring sequence in leopards consists mainly of grunts and is also called "sawing", having been described as resembling the sound of sawing wood. Unsuccessful attempts were made to mate a leopon with a tigress. Some of these species steal its kills, kill its cubs and even kill adult leopards. [152] Social Structure The Amur leopard is habitually nocturnal and solitary. In India, safaris are offered in Madhya Pradesh and Uttarakhand national parks as well as in the Pali district of western Rajasthan.[161]. In Sri Lanka, wildlife tours are available in Yala and Wilpattu National Parks. In Peninsular Malaysia, leopards are present in Belum-Temengor, Taman Negara and Endau-Rompin National Parks. In Hong Kong, Singapore, Kuwait, Syria, Libya, Tunisia and most likely in Morocco and Israel, leopard populations have already been extirpated. [51] They occur in a wide range of habitats; from deserts and semi-desert regions of southern Africa, to arid regions of North Africa, to savanna grasslands of East and southern Africa, to mountainous environments on Mt. Leopards are described as critically endangered on the International Union for Conservation of Natures Red List of Threatened Species. [106], Average daily consumption rates of 3.5kg (7lb 11oz) were estimated for males and of 2.8kg (6lb 3oz) for females. In the Indian subcontinent, the leopard is still relatively abundant, with greater numbers than those of other Panthera species. Leopards are found in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, southwestern and eastern Turkey, in the Sinai/Judean Desert of Southwest Asia, the Himalayan foothills, India, Russia, China and the islands of Java and Sri Lanka, according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The leopard has become extinct in Zanzibar, and in regions of sub-Saharan and northern Africa it is becoming rarer and rarer. In Eurasia, leopards are found in diverse areas including: South Asia, Siberia, and Africa are the traditional homes of the leopard. [34] To compare, male lions measure 266311cm (8ft 812in10ft 212in) from head to end of tail. Males can be highly aggressive in terms of marking their territory, often attacking young males who unknowingly invade these. Snow leopards are found in 12 countriesincluding China, Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Russia, and Mongoliabut their population is dropping. Tigers killed more prey in the 50100kg (110220lb) range. There is considerable potential for human-leopard conflict due to leopards preying on livestock. The leopard-lion clade was distributed in the Asian and African Palearctic since at least the early Pliocene. Species that prefer open areas and developed significant anti-predator strategies are less preferred. [48] Leopards are small but mighty big cats that are found across the globe. They even live in some urban and suburban parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Territorial sizes vary geographically and depending on habitat and availability of prey. [149] The oldest recorded male leopard was Cezar, who reached the age of 23. wtorkowy raport aktualnoci", Illuminating the blind spot: A study on illegal trade in Leopard parts in India (20012010), "Apex predators decline after an influx of pastoralists in former Central African Republic hunting zones", "Medieval Lion Skulls Reveal Secrets of Tower of London 'Zoo, Ruhuna (Yala) National Park in Sri Lanka: Visitors, Visitation, and Eco-Tourism, "Estimation of leopard population size in a secondary forest within Malaysia's capital agglomeration using unsupervised classification of pugmarks", "Conservation and management prospects of the Persian and Malayan leopards", Leopard Anthology: Research and conservation of leopards in Asia, Asian Leopard Specialist Society: Research, conservation and management of Asian leopard subspecies, Wolves in folklore, religion and mythology, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Leopard&oldid=995724649, National symbols of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Articles with Latin-language sources (la), Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Old French (842-ca. [23] Rosettes are circular in East African leopard populations, and tend to be squarish in Southern African and larger in Asian leopard populations. Spots fade toward the white underbelly and the insides and lower parts of the legs. [99], In the Russian Far East, it inhabits temperate coniferous forests where winter temperatures reach a low of 25C (13F). The leopard is distinguished by its well-camouflaged fur, opportunistic hunting behaviour, broad diet, strength, and its ability to adapt to a variety of habitats ranging from rainforest to steppe, including arid and montane areas. [156] The heraldic leopard lacks spots and sports a mane, making it visually almost identical to the heraldic lion, and the two are often used interchangeably. [150] The generation length of the leopard is 9.3 years. These spots are called rosettes "Phylogenetics, genome diversity and origin of modern leopard, "The current distribution and status of leopards, "The Leopard in the Arabian Peninsula Distribution and Subspecies Status", "Description of some new species of Mammalia", "The late Miocene radiation of modern Felidae: a genetic assessment", "Phylogeny and evolution of cats (Felidae)". [121] A study in Wolong National Nature Reserve in southern China demonstrated variation in the leopard's diet over time; over the course of seven years, the vegetative cover receded, and leopards opportunistically shifted from primarily consuming tufted deer to pursuing bamboo rats and other smaller prey. Both leopards and jaguars that are melanistic are known as black panthers. [17] The phonetically similar Sanskrit: (pnd-ara) means pale yellow, whitish or white. Habitat: Amur leopards live in the temperate forests of Far Eastern Russia, experiencing harsh winters with extreme cold and deep snow, as well as hot summers. When a tiger killed baits at sites formerly frequented by leopards, the leopards did not hunt there for some time. [27] It is able to take large prey due to its massive skull and powerful jaw muscles, and is therefore strong enough to drag carcasses heavier than itself up into trees; an individual was seen to haul a young giraffe, weighing nearly 125kg (276lb), up 5.7m (18ft 8in) into a tree. In Cambodia, leopards inhabit deciduous dipterocarp forest in Phnom Prich Wildlife Sanctuary and Mondulkiri Protected Forest. Leopards were also kept and paraded as mascots, totems and sacrifices to deities. [160], In South Africa, safaris are offered in numerous nature reserves such as in Sabi Sand Game Reserve. [9] The earliest known leopard fossils excavated in Europe are estimated 600,000 years old, dating to the late Early Pleistocene. Leopards are usually thought to be African animals, however, they also live in other continents. In one myth, the god was captured by pirates but two leopards appear and rescue him. Habitat and Distribution, Where Do Giraffes Live? The cheetah has small round spots without any rosettes. "A revised taxonomy of the Felidae: The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group", "Population dynamics and threats to an apex predator outside protected areas: implications for carnivore management", "Open, Unregulated Trade in Wildlife in Morocco's Markets", "Potential benefits of impending Moroccan wildlife trade laws, a case study in carnivore skins", "Leopard shot in Bilaspur turns out to be a record breaker", "Molecular genetics and evolution of melanism in the cat family", "Mapping black panthers: Macroecological modeling of melanism in leopards (, "Mammal names proposed by Oken in his 'Lehrbuch der Zoologie, "Phylogeographic subspecies recognition in leopards (. There were also differences in the microhabitat preferences of the individual tiger and leopard followed over five months; the tiger used roads and forested areas more frequently, while the leopard used recently burned areas and open areas more frequently. [74], Fossils of leopard ancestors were excavated in East Africa and South Asia, dating back to the Pleistocene between 2 and 3.5million years ago. The chromosomes include four acrocentric, five metacentric, seven submetacentric and two telocentric pairs. Leopards can be aggressive when others lurk in their area, invading their home range. [154], Leopard captivity in historical times has also been recorded several leopards were kept in a menagerie established by King John at the Tower of London in the 13th century; around 1235, three of these animals were given to Henry III by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. Between January 1996 and March 2009, leopards were photographed at 16 sites in the Malay Peninsula in a sampling effort of more than 1,000 camera trap nights. If they have few prey or if humans live near, they will need wide home territories. Cubs are born with closed eyes, which open four to nine days after birth. Find out Everything about this Hybrid, Differences Between Deer, Elk, Moose and Reindeer, What Does It Mean When a Cat Shows Up at My Door, The 10 Most Solitary Animals in the World. [72], Results of phylogenetic studies based on nDNA and mtDNA analysis showed that the last common ancestor of the Panthera and Neofelis genera is thought to have lived about 6.37million years ago. As human encroachments are on the rise and climate change is killing vegetation on which the herbivore prey of leopards survive, the big cat is increasingly facing danger. These traditional lions passant guardant appear in the coat of arms of Dalmatia and the coat of arms of England and many of its former colonies; more modern naturalistic (leopard-like) depictions appear on the coat of arms of several African nations including Benin, Malawi, Somalia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Gabon, the last of which uses a black panther. In 1917, Reginald Innes Pocock also subordinated the tiger (P. tigris), lion (P. leo), and jaguar (P. onca) to Panthera. It kills small prey with a bite on the back of the neck, but holds larger animals by the throat and strangles them. The modern leopard is suggested to have evolved in Africa about 0.5to0.8 million years ago and to have radiated across Asia about 0.2 and 0.3million years ago. In the Ivory Coast, the home range of a female was completely enclosed within a male's. She died in December 2010 at the age of 24. [18] The specific name Latin: pardus refers to a male panther. [4] It occurs in a wide range in sub-Saharan Africa, in small parts of Western and Central Asia, a small part of European Russia, and on the Indian subcontinent to Southeast and East Asia. They are the following: All types of leopard, with the exception of the African leopard, can be found in Asia, especially in South Asia and the Indian subcontinent. [153], Leopards have been known to humans throughout history, and have featured in the art, mythology, and folklore of many countries where they have historically occurred. However, the situation remains critical. The leopard was caught on CCCTV strolling in the posh localities not far from the residence of District Magistrate, Senior Superintendent of Police (SSP). The leopard is very adaptable and can live in many different places across the globe. [41] In southern China, leopards were recorded only in the Qinling Mountains during surveys in 11 nature reserves between 2002 and 2009. [62], Results of an analysis of molecular variance and pairwise fixation index of 182 African leopard museum specimens published in 2017 showed that some African leopards exhibit higher genetic differences than certain Asian leopards which are recognized as subspecies. It has been hypothesized that the white tips of their tails may function as a 'follow-me' signal in intraspecific communication. Snow leopards can be found in Central and South Asia, but the vast majority of snow leopards reside in China. Leopards are solitary predators that like to look for food in wide regions, called their home territories. Sidebar Nav Leopards: the Most Mysterious of Big Cats Leopard Facts. They most closely resemble the jaguar but they are smaller and lighter than jaguars and the rosettes on their fur are smaller and closer together. [67], Results of a phylogenetic analysis of chemical secretions amongst cats indicated that the leopard is closely related to the lion. Leopardos could be a compound of (len), meaning lion, and (pardos). Although population numbers are thought to be lower outside protected areas, their populations are probably healthiest in Borneo because of the absence of tigers and leopards. The snow leopard's vocalizations include meowing, grunting, prusten, and moaning. [68][69] The most recent, P. p. spelaea, appeared at the beginning of the Late Pleistocene and survived until about 24,000 years ago in several parts of Europe. In fact, leopards can live in a range of geographies and climates, from deserts to rainforests, woodlands, grasslands, savannas, forests, mountains, coastal areas, shrublands, and swamps. A member of the big cat family, leopards are found in parts of Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. [9][126] Leopards generally seem to avoid encounters with adult bears, but kill vulnerable bear cubs. - Habitat and Distribution. In the Serengeti, they are as small as 3338km2 (12121412sqmi) for males and 1416km2 (5126sqmi) for females,[112][113] and as large as 451km2 (174sqmi) for males and 188km2 (7212sqmi) for females in northeastern Namibia. [124], The leopard stalks its prey and tries to approach as close as possible, typically within 5m (16ft) to the target, and finally pounces on it and kills it by suffocation. The ideal snow leopard habitat is bleak, dangerous, cold and desolate not most peoples idea of a nice place to live. [46], Leopards exhibiting erythrism were recorded between 1990 and 2015 in South Africa's Madikwe Game Reserve and in Mpumalanga. [29] [9] The pattern of the rosettes is unique in each individual. Habitat and Distribution, we recommend you visit our Facts about the animal kingdom category. They produce a number of vocalizations, including growls, snarls, meows and purrs. [5][6], Leopards are hunted illegally, and their body parts are smuggled in the wildlife trade for medicinal practices and decoration. What do leopard subspecies have in common? Habitat and Distribution, Is it Legal to Own a Wolf-Dog? [145] Mortality of cubs is estimated at 4150% during the first year. Leopard-like fossil bones and teeth possibly dating to the Pliocene were excavated in Perrier in France, northeast of London, and in Valdarno, Italy. Its fur is marked with rosettes. However, they can also be found in dry woodlands and secondary forests, and in Borneo, th They are found in 12 countriesincluding China, Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Russia, and Mongolia. Studies have shown that leopard subspecies vary in their coloring depending on the area where they reside. Fossil cat teeth collected in Sumatra's Padang Highlands were assigned to the leopard. Of the 445 photographs of melanistic leopards, 410 were taken in study sites south of the Kra Isthmus, where the non-melanistic morph was never photographed. [136] Outside protected areas, leopards were recorded in mixed agricultural land, secondary forest and production forest between 2008 and 2014. However, they tolerate females better. The way the kill is stored depends on local topography and individual preferences; while trees are preferred in Kruger National Park, bushes are preferred in the plain terrain of the Kalahari. The geographic origin of the Panthera is most likely northern Central Asia. [142], Depending on the region, leopards may mate all year round. Rangers confiscated large amounts of poison in the camps of livestock herders who were accompanied by armed merchants. [107] Small prey is eaten immediately, while larger carcasses are dragged over several hundred metres and safely cached in trees, bushes or even caves to be consumed later. [2] Leopard fossils were also found in Japan[10] and Sumatra. [22], Like most cat species, the leopard has a diploid chromosome number of 38. [157] The coat of the leopard has been popular decorative clothing and a symbol of power, wealth and the exotic, being worn by African chiefs, European queens, Hollywood film stars and burlesque dancers. P. p. begoueni from the beginning of the Early Pleistocene was replaced about 0.6million years ago by P. p. sickenbergi, which in turn was replaced by P. p. antiqua around 0.3 million years ago. [16], The generic name Panthera originates in Latin: panthera, which refers to a hunting net for catching wild beasts that were used by the Romans in combats. A leopard was found trapped in a cage kept at farm land near Sirigere village in Chitradurga taluk on Tuesday. Single brown hyenas have been observed charging at and displacing male leopards from kills. [120] Leopards also kill smaller carnivores like black-backed jackal, bat-eared fox, genet and cheetah. [163] Author and big game hunter, Kenneth Anderson, had first-hand experience with many man-eating leopards, and described them as far more threatening than tigers: Although examples of such animals are comparatively rare, when they do occur they depict the panther [leopard] as an engine of destruction quite equal to his far larger cousin, the tiger. In this period, transhumant pastoralists from the border area with Sudan moved in the area with their livestock. [155], The lion passant guardant or leopard is a frequently used charge in heraldry, most commonly appearing in groups of three. [33] Some leopards in North Africa allegedly were as large as Barbary lions. There may be a few other fluctuating territories, belonging to young individuals. [85] [90][91], In Myanmar, leopards were recorded for the first time by camera traps in the hill forests of Myanmar's Karen State. Scientists believe that in nations like Egypt extinction is quite likely. They can run at over 58km/h (36mph), leap over 6m (20ft) horizontally, and jump up to 3m (10ft) vertically. [114] They are even larger in arid and montane areas. The leopard, known scientifically as Panthera pardus, is a member of the Felidae family. Two extreme cases occurred in India: the first leopard, "the Leopard of Rudraprayag", killed more than 125 people; the second, "the Panar Leopard", was believed to have killed more than 400. Cubs are known to call their mother with a urr-urr sound. Although usually slightly smaller than a human, an adult leopard is much more powerful and easily capable of killing one. Habitat and Distribution, Where Do Kiwis Live? [116] It primarily hunts at night in most areas. However, regardless of their territory, all leopards are carnivorous predators, and they are among the most solitary animals in the world. As you can see, the answer to where do leopards live is actually very wide. [134] In tropical forests, they do not always avoid the larger cats by hunting at different times. Kenya, to the rainforests of West and Central Africa. [26] Males weigh 3790kg (82198lb), and females 2860kg (62132lb). They engaged in poaching large herbivores, sale of bushmeat and trading leopard skins in Am Dafok. [15] The word originally referred to a cheetah. [159] In Sri Lanka's Yala National Park, leopards have been ranked by visitors to be among the least visible of all animals in the park, despite their high concentration in the reserve. Because of his smaller size he can conceal himself in places impossible to a tiger, his need for water is far less, and in veritable demoniac cunning and daring, coupled with the uncanny sense of self-preservation and stealthy disappearance when danger threatens, he has no equal. Distribution The Amur Leopard has a range of around 5,000 square kilometres with the main and last viable population being found in a small area of the province of Primorsky Krai in Russia, which is located between Vladivostok and the Chinese border. [98], In Java, leopards inhabit dense tropical rainforests and dry deciduous forests at altitudes from sea level to 2,540m (8,330ft). Most people think of leopards prowling the savannas of Africa, but these spotted predators thrive in many different countries and habitats. Continue reading to learn more! The leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the five extant species in the genus Panthera, a member of the Felidae. [3] It inhabits foremost savanna and rainforest, and areas where grasslands, woodlands, and riverine forests remain largely undisturbed. The leopard is a very adaptable species, and can be found in different regions of the globe, including: As we said above, there are nine different leopard subspecies that have been able to adapt to many different kinds of habitat. Females continue to interact with their offspring even after weaning, and have been observed sharing kills with their offspring when they can not obtain any prey. [101][102], Leopards are active mainly from dusk till dawn and rest for most of the day and for some hours at night in thickets, among rocks or over tree branches. In Greek mythology, the leopard was a symbol of the god Dionysus; who was depicted wearing leopard skin and using leopards as means of transportation. While male leopards weigh an average of 82198 lb62132 lb. The Zanzibar leopard was officially declared extinct 25 years ago, but the classification has been called into question after a wildlife biologist caught the elusive predator on camera. The clouded leopard is found from Nepal, Bangladesh, and Assam (eastern India) through Indochina to Sumatra and Borneo, and northeastward to southern China and formerly Taiwan. African Leopard - The African leopard (Panthera pardus pardus) is a subspecies of [50], The leopard was determined as the type species of Panthera by Joel Asaph Allen in 1902. The average size of these ranges depends on the landscape and the density of prey. Leopards retreat up a tree in the face of direct aggression, and were observed when killing or preying on smaller competitors such as black-backed jackal, African civet, caracal, and African wildcat. Since 1996, only eight subspecies have been considered valid on the basis of mitochondrial analysis. [117] Leopards usually hunt on the ground. Until 1940, similar fossils dating back to the Pleistocene were excavated mostly in loess and caves at 40 sites in Europe, including Furninha Cave near Lisbon, Genista Caves in Gibraltar, and Santander Province in northern Spain to several sites across France, Switzerland, Italy, Austria, Germany, in the north up to Derby in England, in the east to Perov in the Czech Republic and the Baranya in southern Hungary,[76] Leopard fossils dating to the Late Pleistocene were found in Binik Cave in south-central Poland. Its home to large herds of elephant, buffalo, antelope, white rhino, spotted hyena and a massive range of bird species which can be found around its sparkling lagoons. [38][39], Melanistic leopards are also called black panthers. Females, on the other hand, often have overlapping territories without much conflict. [88] Some leopard populations in the country live quite close to human settlements and even in semi-developed areas. A study by the Nature Conservation Foundation found that 357 leopards were captured in Karnataka by the Forest Department between 2009 and 2016 Snow leopards live in harsh, snowy, rugged alpine regions in central and south Asia. They are more commonly found in the Himalayan mountain range, but frequent other Asian mountain ranges as well. [94][95] This is said to be the second incident in the year when a leopard is seeing in a residential colony. Due to the leopard's stealth, people often remain unaware that they live in nearby areas. All in all, they live in many more places than any other big cat. Around three months of age, the young begin to follow the mother on hunts. [129] 1400)-language text, Articles containing Middle French (ca. aboons, hares, rodents, birds, lizards, porcupines, warthogs, fish, and dung beetles. [77] The oldest known leopard fossils excavated in Europe are about 600,000 years old and were found in the Grotte du Vallonnet in France and near Mauer in Germany. In the Serengeti, leopards have been observed to ambush prey by jumping down on it from trees. [55], The leopard is a solitary and territorial animal. [151], The leopard is primarily threatened by habitat fragmentation and conversion of forest to agriculturally used land, which lead to a declining natural prey base, humanwildlife conflict with livestock herders and high leopard mortality rates. [137] Two cases of leopards killing cheetahs have been reported in 2014. China is one of the most influential countries for our conservation efforts, as it contains as much as 60% of all snow leopard habitat areas. If habitat fragmentation, population explosion, and industrialization as well as deforestation take their toll on these majestic predators, it would be a massive loss for the world! What is the Habitat of the Eurasian Wolf. In the tropical forests of India's Nagarhole National Park, tigers selected prey weighing more than 176kg (388lb), whereas leopards selected prey in the 30175kg (66386lb) range. [93] It is heavily hunted as a trophy and for its skin and body parts, which are used in traditional medicine, and it also faces habitat and prey loss. [28] It is muscular, with relatively short limbs and a broad head. Consequently, they live in a wide variety of habitats including forests, mountains, deserts and grasslands. Leopards are found in Africa and Asia, from the Middle Eastern nations to Russia, Korea, China, India, and Malaysia. A female leopard and her cub in a tree in the, A female leopard showing white spots on the back of the ears, A female leopard showing white spots on the tail, A female leopard in estrus fights with a male attempting to mate with her, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. In Thailand, leopards are present in the Western Forest Complex, Kaeng Krachan-Kui Buri, Khlong Saeng-Khao Sok protected area complexes and in Hala Bala Wildlife Sanctuary bordering Malaysia. It measured 262cm (8ft 7in). There is something very terrifying in the angry grunt of a charging leopard, and I have seen a line of elephants that were staunch to a tiger, turn and stampede from a charging leopard. [42] Leopards are smaller and not as muscular as the jaguar. "For me, no animal is [110] Females live with their cubs in territories that overlap extensively, probably due to the association between mothers and their offspring. [87] We must do our best to protect those places where leopards live, saving their habitat and distribution for future generations. [129] Amur leopards have slightly longer legs than other leopards. [7][8], Compared to other wild cats, the leopard has relatively short legs and a long body with a large skull. However, no significant association were found between a conspicuous colour of tail patches and behavioural variables in carnivores. [12][13][14] 'Panther' is another common name, derived from Latin: panther and Ancient Greek: (pnthr);[13] it can additionally refer to the cougar or the jaguar. [81], Leopard populations on the Arabian Peninsula are small and fragmented. The snow leopards habitat extends through twelve countries: Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. Adults associate only in the mating season. Leopard Leopards are graceful and powerful big cats closely related to lions, tigers, and jaguars. A leopard's home range can be anywhere from 5 to 450 square km (2 to 175 mi). Leopards are found in Africa and Asia, from the Middle Eastern nations to Russia, Korea, China, India, and Malaysia. Leopards are large and graceful cats, known for the beautiful pattern on their coat. She died August 8, 2014 at the age of 24 years, 2 months and 13 days. [10], The leopard was crossbred with other Panthera species in zoos. [125], Resource partitioning occurs where leopards share their range with tigers. [9] It can purr when exhaling. [103][104] In western African forests, they have been observed to be largely diurnal and hunting during twilight, when their prey animals are active; activity patterns varies between seasons. The tiger diverged about 6.55million years ago, followed by the snow leopard about 4.63million years ago and the leopard about 4.35million years ago. These adaptations to their habitat go beyond coat and camouflage; the pads of their paws are different in each subspecies, allowing them to walk in diverse terrains across extreme temperatures. The first litter from this pair was born in November 1959, consisting of a male and a female. He also lived at the Warsaw Zoo and was Bertie's lifelong companion. [3] As of 2020, the leopard population within forested habitats in India's tiger range landscapes was estimated at 12,172 to 13,535 individuals. Leopard found dead on NH-44 Gali opposes framing charges in OMC case OnePlus fires up the holiday cheer with OnePlus 7th Anniversary Sale - here are Leopards have been crossbred with other big cats, but the offspring is considered a hybrid, not a subspecies. In the video, the big cat could be seen strolling outside the houses. In Sri Lanka, a few recorded vicious fights between leopards and sloth bears apparently result in both animals winding up either dead or grievously injured. [96][97] Compared with its cousins, the tiger, the jaguar and the lion, the leopard is the smallest of all big cats. [148] Previously, the oldest recorded leopard was a female named Bertie living in captivity in the Warsaw Zoo. In Greek mythology, the leopard was a symbol of the god Dionysus; who was depicted wearing leopard skin and using leopards as means of transportation. [27][32], A study of leopards in the Namibian farmlands showed that the size of territories was not significantly affected by sex, rainfall patterns or season; it concluded that the higher the prey availability in an area, the greater the population density of leopards and the smaller the size of territories, but territories tend to expand if there is human interference (which has been notably high in the study area). The leopard's rosettes differ from those of the jaguar, which are darker and with smaller spots inside. Between 2002 and 2012, at least four leopards were estimated to have been poached per week in India for the illegal wildlife trade of its skins and bones. Another litter was born in 1961, in which all the offspring were spotted and bigger than a juvenile leopard. In Laos, leopards were recorded in Nam Et-Phou Louey National Biodiversity Conservation Area and Nam Kan National Protected Area. [105], Leopards can climb trees very skillfully, often rest on tree branches and descend from trees headfirst. Its pupils are round. [106] The fur of the young tends to be longer and thicker than that of adults. [3] However, in the extreme northern part of the leopards range, a rare subspecies of this cat lives in the temperate forests and harsh winters of the Russian Far East. This hybrid came to be known as a leopon. One large adult leopard was grabbed and consumed by a large crocodile while attempting to hunt along a bank in Kruger National Park. [27] In western African forests and Tsavo National Park, leopards have been also observed hunting by day. [29] Surveys conducted at the beginning of the 21st century revealed that the ranges of both species overlap in this region, especially in protected areas where ungulate densities are high and human disturbance is low. [86], In Nepal's Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, a melanistic leopard was photographed at an elevation of 4,300m (14,100ft) by a camera trap in May 2012. While luxury establishments may boast the fact that wild animals can be seen at close range on a daily basis, the leopard's camouflage and propensity to hide and stalk prey typically make leopard sightings rare. [146], The average typical life span of a leopard is between 12 and 17 years. [55], In 2017, the Cat Classification Task Force of the Cat Specialist Group recognized the following eight subspecies as valid taxa:[4], The Balochistan leopard population possibly evolved in the south of Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan, being separated from the northern population by the Dasht-e Kavir and Dasht-e Lut deserts. Of course, the two would never be confused in the wild because their territories are widely distant. The most significantly preferred species are ungulates; impala, bushbuck, common duiker and chital. The skull of a West African panther measured 28.6cm (1114in) in basal length, and 18.1cm (718in) in breadth, and weighed 790g (1lb 12oz). Primate species preyed upon include those of the genera Cercocebus, Cercopithecus and Semnopithecus. The head-and-body length ranges between 90 and 196cm (2ft 1112in and 6ft 5in) with a 66-to-102-centimetre-long (26 to 40in) tail. [123], Females give birth in a cave, crevice among boulders, hollow tree, or thicket to make a den. [43][44] Pseudomelanistic leopards have also been reported. The mean leopard density decreased significantly (from 9.76 to 2.07 animals per 100km2 (39sqmi)) while the mean density of tigers increased (from 3.31 to 5.81 animals/100km2) from 20042005 to 2008 in Rajaji National Park following the relocation of pastoralists out of the park. [31], The leopard is sexually dimorphic, males are larger and heavier than females. In this AnimalWised article, we're going to explain where leopards live. Leopards tend to take smaller prey, usually less than 75kg (165lb), where tigers are present. Although adaptable to human disturbances, leopards require healthy prey populations and appropriate vegetative cover for hunting for prolonged survival and thus rarely linger in heavily developed areas. [24][27] Its white-tipped tail is about 60100cm (2439in) long, white underneath and with spots that form incomplete bands toward the tail's end. The Ancient Romans kept leopards in captivity to be slaughtered in hunts as well as be used in executions of criminals. [27][32] In some regions, they are nocturnal. "Supermatrix and species tree methods resolve phylogenetic relationships within the big cats, "Oldest known pantherine skull and evolution of the tiger", "The utility of chemical signals as phylogenetic characters: an example from the Felidae", "Himalayan fossils of the oldest known pantherine establish ancient origin of big cats", "Phylogenomic evidence for ancient hybridization in the genomes of living cats (Felidae)", "Evolutionary history and conservation significance of the Javan leopard, "Variationstatistische Untersuchungen am Gebiss pleistozner und rezenter Leoparden und anderer Feliden", "Two forms of cave lion: Middle Pleistocene, "The Decline of North Africa Since the Roman Occupation: Climatic or Human? [27][32], Usually, leopards are larger in areas where they are at the top of the food chain, without competitive restriction from larger predators such as lions and tigers. In Manchuria and Siberia, they mate during January and February. [70][71] Additionally, a 2016 study revealed that the mitochondrial genomes of the leopard, lion and snow leopard are more similar to each other than their nuclear genomes, indicating that their ancestors hybridized with the snow leopard at some point in their evolution. Snow leopards live across a vast area of northern and central Asia, including the Himalayan Mountains. [78] Leopard fossils dating to the Pleistocene were also excavated in the Japanese archipelago. This may be to help them to walk in the snow. Click to attach a photo related to your comment, According to a BBC article Sri Lanka is also home to the biggest leopards in the world and highest density of leopards anywhere in the world, Where do Leopards Live? The expected time for the fixation of this recessive allele due to genetic drift alone ranged from about 1,100 years to about 100,000 years. While they were previously found in the wild in a number of areas around the world, their habitat is largely restricted to sub-Saharan Africa with small numbers also found in India, Pakistan, Malaysia, China and Indochina. [147] The oldest recorded spotted leopard was a female named Roxanne living in captivity at McCarthy's Wildlife Sanctuary in The Acreage, Palm Beach County, Florida. It is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List because leopard populations are threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation, and are declining in large parts of the global range. It can run at speeds of up to 58 kilometres per hour (36mph). They can be found at elevations between 3,000 to 5,000 metres across a total of 12 different countries. Contemporary records suggest that the leopard occurs in only 25% of its historical global range. [54] Later analysis revealed a ninth valid subspecies, the Arabian leopard. [123][107] Mugger crocodiles reportedly killed an adult leopard in Rajasthan. ", "Increasing game prices may alter farmers' behaviours towards leopards (, "Status of the Arabian leopard in Saudi Arabia", "Living with Leopards Outside Protected Areas in India", "Notes on the diet and habitat selection of the Sri Lankan Leopard, "First structured camera-trap surveys in Karen State, Myanmar, reveal high diversity of globally threatened mammals", "Effects of humancarnivore conflict on tiger (, "Habitat preferences and activity patterns of the larger mammal community in Phnom Prich Wildlife Sanctuary, Cambodia", "Activity patterns and home ranges of Indochinese leopard, "Identifying priority conservation landscapes and actions for the Critically Endangered Javan leopard in Indonesia: Conserving the last large carnivore in Java Island", "Spots, stripes, tail tips and dark eyes: predicting the function of carnivore colour patterns using the comparative method", "The adaptive significance of coloration in mammals", 10.1641/0006-3568(2005)055[0125:TASOCI]2.0.CO;2, "Hunting behaviour in west African forest leopards", "Spacing and activity patterns of leopards, 10.2981/0909-6396(2005)11[145:SAAPOL]2.0.CO;2, "Leopard predation and primate evolution", "Leopard predation on giraffe calves in the Etosha National Park", "Water-use by southern Kalahari leopards", "Interspecific killing among mammalian carnivores", "Food habits of sloth bear in Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, southern India", "On the ecological separation between tigers and leopards", Blog: Leopard kills cheetah in the Mara and hoists it up a tree, Roxanne, oldest spotted leopard in captivity, dies at Acreage preserve, "Nie ma ju lampartw cejloskich w warszawskim zoo", "Co w zoo? We'll also talk more about leopards and their natural habitat and distribution. [143] Gestation lasts for 90 to 105 days. [119], Prey as heavy as a 550kg (1,210lb) giraffe is hunted, especially in areas that lack larger carnivores such as lions or tigers since they do not need to drag prey up trees to retain it. [154] During the Benin Empire, the leopard was commonly represented on engravings and sculptures and was used to symbolize the power of the king or oba, since the leopard was considered the king of the forest. 1400-1600)-language text, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles containing Sanskrit-language text, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Taxonbars with automatically added original combinations, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Present and historical distribution of the leopard, It is the most widespread leopard subspecies and is native to, It is native to mainland Southeast Asia and probably, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 15:30. Most other types of leopard live in hot countries such as Africa, but Amur leopards are found in colder regions. 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